The United Mexican States are a federation of 31 free and sovereign states, which form a
union that exercises a degree of jurisdiction over Mexico City and other territories.
Each state has its own constitution, congress, and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term, and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms.
Mexico City is a special political division that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state. Formerly known as the Federal District, its autonomy was previously limited relative to that of the states.
It dropped this designation in 2016 and is in the process of achieving greater political autonomy by becoming a federal entity with its own constitution and congress.
The states are divided into municipalities, the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or municipal president (presidente municipal), elected by its residents by plurality.
Here the list of Mexico's States and own Capitals:
- Aguascalientes (AGS) - Capital: Aguascalientes
- Baja California (BC) - Capital: Mexicali
- Baja California Sur (BCS) - Capital: La Paz
- Campeche (CAM) - Capital: Campeche
- Chiapas (CHS) - Capital: Tuxtla Gutiérrez
- Chihuahua (CHH) - Capital: Chihuahua
- Coahuila (COA) - Capital: Saltillo
- Colima (COL) - Capital: Colima
- Durango (DUR) - Capital: Durango
- Guanajuato (GTO) - Capital: Guanajuato
- Guerrero (GRO) - Capital: Chilpancingo
- Hidalgo (HDG) - Capital: Pachuca
- Jalisco (JAL) - Capital: Guadalajara
- State of Mexico (EM) - Capital: Toluca
- Mexico City (CDMX) - Capital: Mexico City
- Michoacán (MIC) - Capital: Morelia
- Morelos (MOR) - Capital: Cuernavaca
- Nuevo León (NL) - Capital: Monterrey
- Oaxaca (OAX) - Capital: Oaxaca
- Puebla (PUE) - Capital: Puebla
- Querétaro (QRO) - Capital: Querétaro
- Quintana Roo (QR) - Capital: Chetumal
- Sinaloa (SNL) - Capital: Culiacán
- Sonora (SON) - Capital: Hermosillo
- Tabasco (TAB) - Capital: Villahermosa
- Tamaulipas (TAM) - Capital: Victoria
- Tlaxcala (TLA) - Capital: Tlaxcala
- Veracruz (VER) - Capital: Xalapa
- Yucatán (YUC) - Capital: Mérida
- Zacatecas (ZAC) - Capital: Zacatecas
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Spanish: Ciudad de México); is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
It is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas.
It is located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.
The 2009 population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers (573 sq mi). According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration (2017), and the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world.
Others cities and town population:
Guadalajara - population: 4,887,383
Monterrey - population: 4,689,601
Puebla - population: 2,941,988
Toluca - population: 2,202,886
Tijuana - population: 1,840,710
León - population: 1,768,193
Juárez - population: 1,391,180
Torreón - population: 1,342,195
Querétaro - population: 1,323,640
San Luis Potosí - population: 1,159,807
Mérida - population: 1,143,041
Aguascalientes - population: 1,044,049
Mexicali - population: 988,417
Cuernavaca - population: 983,365
Saltillo - population: 923,636
Chihuahua - population: 918,339
Tampico - population: 916,854
Veracruz - population: 915,223
Morelia - population: 911,960
Spanish is the de facto national language spoken by the vast majority of Mexicans, though it
is not defined as an official language in legislation. The second article of the 1917
Constitution defines the country as multicultural, recognizes the right of the indigenous
peoples to "preserve and enrich their languages" and promotes "bilingual and intercultural
Mexico has about six million citizens who speak indigenous languages. That is the second-largest group in the Americas after Peru. However, a relatively small percentage of Mexico's population speaks an indigenous language compared to other countries in the Americas, such as Guatemala (42.8%), Peru (35%), and even Ecuador (9.4%), Panama (8.3%), Paraguay and Bolivia.
The only single indigenous language spoken by more than a million people in Mexico is the Nahuatl language; the other Native American language with a large population of native speakers include Yucatec Maya.
The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones.
Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months.
South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. This gives Mexico one of the world's most diverse weather systems.
Areas south of the 24th parallel with elevations up to 1,000 m (3,281 ft) (the southern parts of both coastal plains as well as the Yucatán Peninsula), have a yearly median temperature between 24 to 28 °C (75.2 to 82.4 °F). Temperatures here remain high throughout the year, with only a 5 °C (9 °F) difference between winter and summer median temperatures.
Both Mexican coasts, except for the south coast of the Bay of Campeche and northern Baja, are also vulnerable to serious hurricanes during the summer and fall.
Although low-lying areas north of the 24th parallel are hot and humid during the summer, they generally have lower yearly temperature averages (from 20 to 24 °C or 68.0 to 75.2 °F) because of more moderate conditions during the winter.
Many large cities in Mexico are located in the Valley of Mexico or in adjacent valleys with altitudes generally above 2,000 m (6,562 ft). This gives them a year-round temperate climate with yearly temperature averages (from 16 to 18 °C or 60.8 to 64.4 °F) and cool nighttime temperatures throughout the year.
Many parts of Mexico, particularly the north, have a dry climate with sporadic rainfall while parts of the tropical lowlands in the south average more than 2,000 mm (78.7 in) of annual precipitation. For example, many cities in the north like Monterrey, Hermosillo, and Mexicali experience temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) or more in summer. In the Sonoran Desert temperatures reach 50 °C (122 °F) or more.
Mexico is located between latitudes 14° and 33°N, and longitudes 86° and 119°W in the
southern portion of North America.
Almost all of Mexico lies in the North American Plate, with small parts of the Baja California peninsula on the Pacific and Cocos Plates.
Geophysically, some geographers include the territory east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (around 12% of the total) within Central America.
Geopolitically, however, Mexico is entirely considered part of North America, along with Canada and the United States.
Mexico's total area is 1,972,550 km2 (761,606 sq mi), making it the world's 13th largest country by total area. It has coastlines on the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California, as well as the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, the latter two forming part of the Atlantic Ocean. Within these seas are about 6,000 km2 (2,317 sq mi) of islands (including the remote Pacific Guadalupe Island and the Revillagigedo Islands). From its farthest land points, Mexico is a little over 2,000 mi (3,219 km) in length.
On its north, Mexico shares a 3,141 km (1,952 mi) border with the United States. The meandering Río Bravo del Norte (known as the Rio Grande in the United States) defines the border from Ciudad Juárez east to the Gulf of Mexico. A series of natural and artificial markers delineate the United States-Mexican border west from Ciudad Juárez to the Pacific Ocean.
On its south, Mexico shares an 871 km (541 mi) border with Guatemala and a 251 km (156 mi) border with Belize.
Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges known as Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental, which are the extension of the Rocky Mountains from northern North America. From east to west at the center, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Sierra Nevada. A fourth mountain range, the Sierra Madre del Sur, runs from Michoacán to Oaxaca.
As such, the majority of the Mexican central and northern territories are located at high altitudes, and the highest elevations are found at the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: Pico de Orizaba (5,700 m or 18,701 ft), Popocatépetl (5,462 m or 17,920 ft) and Iztaccihuatl (5,286 m or 17,343 ft) and the Nevado de Toluca (4,577 m or 15,016 ft).
Three major urban agglomerations are located in the valleys between these four elevations: Toluca, Greater Mexico City and Puebla.
The Mexican peso (sign: $; code: MXN) is the currency of Mexico.
Modern peso and dollar currencies have a common origin in the 15th–19th century Spanish dollar, most continuing to use its sign, "$". The Mexican peso is the 10th most traded currency in the world, the third most traded currency from America (after the United States dollar and Canadian dollar), and the most traded currency from Latin America.
The current ISO 4217 code for the peso is MXN; prior to the 1993 revaluation, the code MXP was used. The peso is subdivided into 100 centavos, represented by "¢". As of 14 April 2019, the peso's exchange rate was $21.21 per euro and $18.76 per U.S. dollar.
Since the early 1990s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population
and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly
developed countries like Germany or Japan.
Mexico's medical infrastructure is highly rated for the most part and is usually excellent in major cities, but rural communities still lack equipment for advanced medical procedures, forcing patients in those locations to travel to the closest urban areas to get specialized medical care.
State-funded institutions such as Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) and the Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers (ISSSTE) play a major role in health and social security.
Private health services are also very important and account for 13% of all medical units in the country.
Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings. Some public universities in Mexico, such as the University of Guadalajara, have signed agreements with the U.S. to receive and train American students in Medicine. Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners.
In Mexico, tourists and foreigners have the right to medical attention from the Government hospital network in case of emergency. Nevertheless we recommend a Medical Health Insurance that also includes the medical return assisted to your country.
Foreign citizens who have a passport and also have any of the following documents do not
require a Mexican visa:
I. Valid multiple entry visa of the United States.
II. Permanent resident card in Canada, the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom or any country that belongs to the Schengen area.
III. Travel card for business people (APEC Business Traveler Card (ABTC), approved by Mexico
Migratory requirements of entry to Mexico for foreign visitors that could be requested by immigration officers upon entering the country
I. Passport or identity document valid and valid at the time of departure from the country.
II. Personal information requested by migration authorities.
III. Justification of the trip. This information must be in accordance with the issued visa, in case this is necessary. If you travel as a tourist, you will be asked to prove economic solvency as well as the hotel reservation (preferably paid); You may be required to show your place of residence and origin.
IV. Address and period of stay in the national territory. It is important to present the round trip ticket to the country of origin and show that the hotel reservation is consistent with the dates of stay in the country.
V. Information related to the activities that will be carried out in the national territory as well as those carried out in the place of origin.
VI. Economic solvency for the period of stay in the national territory. It is highly recommended to have an international credit/debit card. The immigration officer at your entrance to Mexico will stamp a migratory form that you must keep, since this document must be delivered to the migration office upon leaving the country.
Citizens of these countries must request a visa to enter Mexico:
Afghanistan / Albania / Angola / Antigua and Barbuda / Algeria / Armenia / Azerbaijan
Bahrain / Bangladesh / Belarus / Benin / Bolivia / Bosnia Herzegovina / Botswana / Brunei Darusalam / Burkina Faso / Burundi / Bhutan
Cape Verde / Cambodia / Cameroon / Central African Republic / Chad / China / Comoros / Congo / Congo, Dem. Rep. (Zaire) / Cuba
Djibouti / Dominica / Dominican Republic
Egypt / El Salvador / Equatorial Guinea / Eritrea / Ethiopia
Gabon / Gambia / Georgia / Ghana / Grenada / Guatemala / Guinea / Guinea-Bissau / Guyana
Haiti / Honduras
India / Indonesia / Iraq / Iran / Ivory Coast
Kazakhstan / Kenya / Kyrgyzstan / Kiribati / Kuwait
Laos / Lesotho / Lebanon / Liberia / Libya
Macedonia / Madagascar / Malawi / Maldives / Mali / Morocco / Mauricio / Mauritania / Myanmar / Moldova / Mongolia / Montenegro / Mozambique
Namibia / Nauru / Nepal / Nicaragua / Niger / Nigeria / North Korea
Pakistan / Palestine / Papua New Guinea / Philippines
Russian Federation / Rwanda
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic / Salomon Islands / Saint Kitts and Nevis / Saudi Arabia / St. Vincent and the Grenadines / St. lucia / Holy See / Holy Tome and Prince / Senegal / Serbia / Seychelles Islands / Sierra Leone / Syria / Somalia / Sri Lanka / South Africa / Sudan / Surinam / Swaziland
Thailand / Taiwan / Tanzania / Tajikistan / Timor East / Togo / Tonga / Tunisia / Turkmenistan / Turkey / Tuvalu
Ukraine / Uganda / Uzbekistan
Vanuatu / Vietnam
Zambia / Zimbabwe
Statutory holidays (referred as "feriados" or "días de asueto" in Mexico) are legislated through the federal government and ruled by the Federal Labor Law (Ley Federal del Trabajo).
Most workers, public and private, are entitled to take the day off with regular pay.
When a statutory holiday falls on a Sunday, Monday is considered a statutory holiday; if a statutory holiday falls on Saturday, Friday will be considered a statutory holiday.
January 1 Año Nuevo
February 5 Día de la Constitución
March 21 Natalicio de Benito Juárez
May 1 Día del Trabajo
September 16 Día de la Independencia
November 20 Día de la Revolución
December 25 Navidad
In addition to these dates, election days designated by federal and local electoral laws are also statutory holidays.
February 19 Día del Ejército
February 24 Día de la Bandera
March 18 Aniversario de la Expropiación petrolera
April 21 Heroica Defensa de Veracruz
May 5 Batalla de Puebla
May 8 Natalicio de Miguel Hidalgo
June 1 Día de la Marina
September 13 Día de los Niños Héroes
September 16 Grito de Dolores
September 27 Consumación de la Independencia
September 30 Natalicio de José Ma. Morelos y Pavón
October 12 Día de la Raza
November 20 Aniversario de la Revolución Mexicana
November 23 Dia de la Armada de Mexico
January 6 Día de los Reyes Magos
February 2 Día de la Candelaria
February 14 Día de San Valentín
April 30 Día del Niño
May 10 Día de las Madres
May 15 Día del Maestro
May 23 Día del estudiante
Third Sunday of June Día del Padre
November 1 Día de Todos los Santos
November 2 Día de los Fieles Difuntos
December 12 Día de la Virgen de Guadalupe
December 16–24 Las Posadas
December 24 Nochebuena
December 25 Navidad
December 28 Dia de los Santos Inocentes
December 31 Víspera de Año Nuevo
In tourist facilities and other service units, prices are set in Cuban Convertible Pesos
In Varadero, Cayo Largo del Sur, Jardines del Rey (Coco and Guillermo Keys), Santa Lucía and Covarrubias Beaches, and Holguín province (tourist resorts on northern coastline), you can also pay in Euros (change is mostly in CUC).
Credit cards - except those issued by US banks or their branches in other countries - are accepted. Among those, MasterCard and Visa International are the most widely accepted.
The CUC is not an internationally circulating currency.
When withdrawing cash with a credit card, the CUC will be converted first to the US Dollar, the amount in USD will be deducted from your account, plus 3%.
Example: if you want to withdraw CUC 100.00 cash with your credit card, USD 103.00 will be debited.
Cuban Convertible Pesos are legal tender everywhere in the national territory.
Cuban convertible pesos can be changed upon departure at bank offices at international airports and ports in Cuba.
Travelers Checks - as long as they are payable against banks that are not based in the United States - are accepted, although not recommended as they are subject to a commission and in case of loss, they cannot be substituted in Cuba.
In Mexico, the common voltage is 127 V. The frequency is 60 Hz. The plugs and sockets are A/B. Electrically powered items from the United States work with no modifications.
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